|The Apple Computer is a complete
microprocessor system, consisting of a Mos Technology 6502 microprocessor
and support hardware, integral video display electronics, dynamic memory
and refresh hardware, and fully regulated power supplies. It contains
resident system monitor software, enabling the user, via the keyboard
and display, to write, examine, debug, and run programs efficiently; thus
being an educational tool for the learning of microprocessor programming,
and an aid in the development of software.
The integral video display section and the keyboard interface renders unnecessary the need for an external teletype. The display section contains its own memory, leaving all of RAM for user programs, and the output format is 40 characters/ line, 24 lines/page, with auto scrolling. Almost any ASCII encoded keyboard will interface directly with the Apple system.
The board has sockets for up to 8K bytes of the 16 pin, 4K type, RAM, and the system is fully expandable to 65K via the edge connector. The system uses dynamic memory (4K bytes supplied),
|although static memory may also
be used. All refreshing of dynamic memory. including all "off- board"
expansion memory, is done automatically. The entire system timing, including
the microprocessor clock and all video signals. originates in a single
Further, the printed circuit board contains a breadboard area", in which the user can add additional "on-board " hardware (for example, extra PIA's, ACIA's, EROM's, and so on).
This manual is divided into three Sections:
Section I GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING.
Please read Section l thoroughly, before attempting to "power-up" your system, and study Section III carefully before attempting to expand your system. In addition to this manual, Apple "Tech Notes" are available which contain examples of expansion hardware and techniques.
GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING
|The Apple Computer is fully
assembled, tested, and burned in. The only external devices necessary for
operation of the system are: An ASCII encoded keyboard, a video display
monitor, and AC power sources of 8 to 10 Volts (RMS) @3 amps and 28 Volts
(RMS) @l amp. The following three articles describe the attachment of
these devices in detail.
|STROBE line, and two
normally-open pushbutton switches, used for RESET (enter monitor), and
CLEAR SCREEN (see schematic diagram, sheet 3 of 3, for exact circuitry).
This keyboard connector also surplice three voltages, (+5V, +12V, and
-12V) of which one or rnore may be necessary to operate the keyboard. Pin
15 of the keyboard connector (B4) must be tied to +5V (pin 16) for normal
NOTE: The system monitor accepts only uppercase alpha (A-F, R).
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