Physioacoustics, Psychoacoustic Aural Illusions and Your Apple IIgs Virtual Audio
- Unleashed via Noise Tracker GS, VAMPS/NTV
(Vortex Audio Mastered Psychoacoustic Sound/Noise Tracker GS, VAMPS)
By: Charles T. Turley, Ph.D.
FREEWARE - Copyright (c) 1994-96 by Charles T. Turley and OmniSoft Research LAB -
Updated and converted to html - 3/26/96
GS Sound - Part 4
If you've read Parts 1, 2 and 3 of this six part article, then you should have a fair
general understanding of the conception of VAMPS, how to construct them and the
basics of their special effects. If you haven't read Parts 1, 2 and 3, then you
You can find them in the file 'SOUND.GS', in the TNT folder on MegaMODS Vol's. 3
and 4 . If you can't find these disks on your local BBS, your favorite Apple2
ftp site on 'THE NET' or a major on-line service, then you can send me a 3.5
disk, with your request, a self-addressed, stamped return envelope or disk mailer
and I'll send you Parts 1, 2 and 3.
Part 4 of this six part article covers my personal outline for a theory (controversial
it may be) of how sound is delivered to and interpreted by; the human brain, our
other organs, body cavities as resonance and even individual cells, along with some
concepts for the aspects of psychoacoustics, binaural, bineural, physioacoustic
sound effects and the review of a rather bizarre term, that I've coined as:
I've been trying to come up with a reasonable explanation for many years, of how
sound is delivered to, resonates and is interpreted by; the human brain, our
other organs, body cavities and even individual cells, as have so many others.
Until very recently, I've been at a loss to give any logical or reasonable theory
Then, I read the 'Quantum Consciousness' article in the June 1994 issue of
Discover, which discussed Dr. Roger Penrose, his concepts of cellular
and theories about their abilities. That's when I derived
my theory which follows.
Microtubules are a small bundle of tubes (an arrangement of protein structures)
found in all living cells. These microtubules (being a component of all living
cells) appear to be an ideal conduit for; conducting, coherently focusing,
channeling and even delivering resonant induction of sound from one cell to
These same microtubules could even be the basis for our very physical roots of
individualized consciousness and abstract conceptual interpretation of every
aspect of both psychoacoustic and physioacoustic sound effects; localization
perceptions, individual frequency sensitivity, emotional and memory evoked
response phenomena, whole brain synchronization via binaural effects, bineural
loop audio induction, sympathetic resonance of organs, cavities, cells, etc. and
Now, that all sounds like a simple solution to a vastly complex series of
processes, both physiological and psychological. However, when you sit down and
try to prove the reality of such a simple theory (for how sound is perceived in
all of its aspects), it can't be done with the current known laws of physics.
Not only are we dealing with quantum mechanics, but also with the very abstract
roots of our consciousness or mind. I'm sure everybody would agree that our
consciousness or mind can't be explained by the currently known laws of physics.
Thus, that aspect of ourselves is governed by laws not yet discovered or
formulated. A (yet to be developed field) that I'll term as, 'Quantum Biosonic
Physics' would have to be devised to deal with biological audio energy transfer
So, simple and yet thought provoking as this theory of sound preception may be,
concerning microtubules, it can't yet be proven. But, I'm certain that some day
in the near future it will prove to be correct.
According to standard neuroscience, our brain processes information via
electrical impulse patterns which, our neurons swap with each other. Perhaps,
originating as a mismash of quantum mechanical states of sound vibration,
channeled or conducted with the guidance of microtubules from a single or group
of cells, on to the next and so on, could allow the simultaneous existence of
countless billions of different patterns.
Out of that vast quantum mechanical and energy transfer mix, one pattern would
develop that fulfills the task of audio conception at hand - it "clicks' - and
that's the pattern that becomes a conscious thought or sonic interpretation.
Microtubules make extraordinarily good conductors of physical vibrations, or
sound waves. Using computer models to simulate microtubule behavior, Dr. Stuart
Hameroff found that a vibration introduced into one end of the microtubule could
propagate unchanged throughout the length of its hollow, water-filled interior.
Disturbances in neighboring microtubules displayed a "coherence". So, a
vibration in one microtubule could start another one vibrating in exactly the
same fashion. Eventually, a sonic vibration, propagating down one microtubule
could be passed on to entire bundles of microtubules vibrating in synchronomy and
likely right through cell membranes and on to microtubules in neighboring cells.
Microtubules make up some sort of information-processing network, at the cellular
level. Additionally, these networks in the cell could also play the role of a
logic switching array, directing vibrational pulses along certain paths within
the cell and also among cells. By arranging and interconnecting themselves in
the right ways, they'd direct vibrational signals here and there just as wires
direct the flow of electric signals.
Since such a network could exist within a single brain cell - a brain cell that
was itself part of a computing network - a microtubule network would in effect,
be a computer within a computer.
The brain seems to require more computing power than neurons can provide through
electrical stimulation alone, and microtubules signaling each other through
sympathetic vibration could offer an additional mechanism for audio
Essentially, microtubule signaling could assist the brain with handling enormous
amounts of audio informational processing on two levels; at the level of
microtubules swapping vibrational signals, and at the level of whole neurons
swapping electric signals.
The microtubule signaling could function in any or all of the following three
combinations. (1) to provide a lower level of processing that determines when
neurons will fire as the last stage of processing. (2) processes could work in
concert, trading signals back and forth in a continuous dialogue. Or (3), pass
signals from neuron to neuron in response to neuronal firing, providing a scheme
for fine-tuning the firing patterns.
Research by biophysicists starting in the late 1980s produced intriguing hints
that microtubules, by virtue of their tiny dimensions and tubular form, had some
unique quantum mechanical properties.
Normally, any pulse of vibrational or other energy in the brain couldn't exist in
a quantum mechanical mixture of states, because all the matter and activity in
the brain would disturb it and instantly cause it to choose a single state.
But, according to some researchers' calculations, a microtubule could insulate a
pulse from the surrounding multitude of activity. The pulse could travel along
the microtubule oblivious to the noise around it, without having to interact with
the molecules in the microtubule wall.
As long as the pulse wasn't forced to choose a single state, it would be free to
explore simultaneously any number of possible patterns within and among other
microtubules. Even crossing among cells wouldn't necessarily disturb the pulse.
After all, one tuning fork can set another vibrating even if the intervening air
is noisy with other signals.
All this shows, how microtubules can be configured in the brain, the ways they
could be able to pass on signals at varied levels and also shows that the
microtubules' insulating properties would allow vibrational pulses to quantum
mechanically explore multiple pathways.
At present nobody really knows for certain, if any of this is correct. In
theory, it could be argued pro and con for years to come. Only time and diligent
research will give the answer.
Wouldn't it be astounding if these little tubular shaped, water filled protein
fibers in every cell turned out to be the very gateways to informational transfer
processes of, not only audio informational exchange and interpretation but, of
conventional informational exchange among all cells.
Obviously, the above mentioned is far from complete and can't be proven by the
current laws or formulas. Thus, it's safe to say that if it does prove to be
correct, new laws and formulas will have to be discovered to explain all of this
(now pure speculation) concept. If and when it does materialize into a real and
provable theory, then a vast complex of new and mind boggling options will be
available to develop upon.
Within a few years, it might even be possible to genetically engineer synthetic
microtubules and interconnect our biological events to computers, for vast and
highly accurate informational exchanges of audio/sound data, giving us all an
entirely new, unique and very useful tool to interact sonically, with our
personal computers of the future.
Read SOUND GS Part 5
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