8°L xCÉ)pJJJJ Ŕ
I ˙H(ČąHĐ:°Šć=ĽIHŠ[H`
@
H ^ąH ČŔëĐö˘ź2 ˝9 ň ˝@
ĘîŠ
IŠ Éů°/
H`JLNGČBČFŠ
a
K ' °fćaćaćFĽFÉď
ĐRŠĐĽJm#¨
ćKĽKJ°É
đq J )¨ąJŮ ĐŰö ąJJm ąJ
FČąJ
GŠ
J KaČM ' °5ćaća¤NćNąJ
FąL
GJĐ˘Š¨3
@12 Adding Integers
%2
^1
The set of integers is made up of
positive and negative whole numbers,
including zero.
^2
When numbers have the same signs, add
the numbers and use that sign.
~
%4
^1
When the signs are mixed, the absolute
value of the num˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙jł
ăQł (TUTOR8.2÷Špł
ăł
(TUTOR8.3÷żł
ăQł (TUTOR9.1÷°@ł
ăZł(TUTOR9.2÷ľ]ł
ăZł(TUTOR6.1÷S
^ł3
ămł*
(TUTOR6.2÷š
^ł3
ămł*
(TUTOR7.1÷Śł
ăWł6
(TUTOR7.2÷ZZłăWł(TUTOR7.3÷^ł3
ătł; (TUTOR7.4÷ ł
ăWł(TUTOR8.1÷Ľáł
ăWł4 (TUTOR4.2÷eł
ăWł
(TUTOR4.3÷joł
ăZł,
(TUTOR4.4÷oiłămł*
(TUTOR5.1÷twł
ăWł
(TUTOR5.2÷xĄł
ăWł
(TUTOR5.3÷} ł
ăWł
(TUTOR2.1÷Jł
ăoł)(TUTOR2.2÷N+ł"
ăWł (TUTOR2.3÷R`ł ăWł (TUTOR3.1÷VQł,ăWł# (TUTOR3.2÷Y:ł
ăWł' (TUTOR3.3÷]Ň^ł3
ămł*
(TUTOR4.1÷atł
ătł
*TUTOR7.TXT.3
^ł.
ămł*
*TUTOR8.TXT5mł)
ămł*
*TUTOR9.TXT:gł!ămł*
(TUTOR1.1÷?ł1ăZł(
(TUTOR1.2÷C}łăWł (TUTOR1.3÷GłăWł ôDATAjł)SłA'
$*TUTOR1.TXTq^ł
ămł)
*TUTOR2.TXT
^ł
ămł)
*TUTOR3.TXTŘ^ł
ămł)
*TUTOR4.TXT ^ł
ămł)
*TUTOR5.TXTc
^ł.
ămł)
*TUTOR6.TXT&`ČĐűćaćaĘô8Ľaé
aÎ ĐĘXL LG &PRODOSĽ`
DĽa
ElH$?EGvô×ŃśK´ŹŚ+`Lź Xü šX ą÷LU ŐÎÁÂĚĹ ÔĎ ĚĎÁÄ ĐŇĎÄĎÓĽS)*+Ş˝ŔŠ,˘ĘĐýéĐ÷Ś+`ĽF)É)
(*
=ĽGJĽFjJJ
A
QĽE
'Ś+˝Ŕ ź ć'ć=ć=° ź źŔ`Ľ@
SŠ
TĽS
P8ĺQđ°ćSĆS8 m ĽP o Đă R(8ĆRđÎđőbers is used to solve
the problem. The absolute value of a
number is the distance between the
number and 0 on a number line.
The absolute value of 3 is 3.
The absolute value of 3 is also 3.
^2
If the signs are mixed, first add
together the numbers
uping symbols such as parentheses
and fraction bars, the rules for Order
of Operations are slightly different.
^2
Operations within parentheses must be
performed first.
^3
Next, evaluate terms with exponents.
^4
Multiply and divide (left to right);
thse is used as a factor.
^2
First, evaluate terms with exponents.
^3
Second, multiply and divide, working
from left to right.
^4
Third, add and subtract, working from
left to right.
~
@32 Order (Grouping)
%4
^1
When an equation includes exponents and
grow many times
the base is used as a factor.
^2
First, evaluate terms with exponents.
^3
Second, multiply and divide, working
from left to right.
^4
Third, add and subtract, working from
left to right.
~
%4
^1
The exponent indicates how many times
the bais more than one operation to
perform, follow the rules for Order of
Operations.
^2
First, multiply and divide, working
from left to right.
^3
Second, add and subtract, working from
left to right.
~
@22 Order (Exponents)
%4
^1
The exponent indicates ho3
@12 Order (Integers)
%3
^1
If there is more than one operation to
perform, follow the rules for Order of
Operations.
^2
First, multiply and divide, working
from left to right.
^3
Second, add and subtract, working from
left to right.
~
%3
^1
If there er of negative
terms, the answer is negative.
^2
Determine the sign and multiply or
divide as indicated.
~
the
larger number.
~
@32 Multiplying and Dividing Integers
%2
^1
If there are an even number of negative
terms (or if there are none), the
answer is positive.
^2
Determine the sign and multiply or
divide as indicated.
~
%2
^1
If there are an odd numbhe second
number.
^2
To add the inverse, rewrite the problem
as addition and change the sign of the
second number.
^3
Then subtract the smaller absolute
value from the larger.
Remember to disregard the signs.
^4
The final answer takes the sign ofhe same as adding the
inverse (opposite) of the second
number.
^2
To add the inverse, rewrite the problem
as addition and change the sign of the
second number.
^3
Add the numbers.
~
%4
^1
Subtraction is the same as adding the
inverse (opposite) of t with the same
signs.
^3
Then, subtract the smaller absolute
value from the larger.
Remember to disregard the signs.
^4
The final answer takes the sign of
the number with the larger
absolute value.
~
@22 Subtracting Integers
%3
^1
Subtraction is ten add and subtract (left to right).
~
%4
^1
When an equation includes exponents and
grouping symbols such as parentheses
and fraction bars, the rules for Order
of Operations are slightly different.
^2
Evaluate the numerator and the
denominator first (exponents,
multiplication and division, addition
and subtraction).
^3
Multiply and divide from left to right.
^4
Add and subtract from left to right.
~
al, find its
Greatest Common Factor (GCF).
The GCF is the lowest term that is a
factor of all numbers and variables in
a problem.
You must look at both the coefficients
and the variables.
^2
First, factor out the largest common
factor of the coeirst, factor out the largest common
factor of the coefficients.
^3
Then factor out the lowest power of the
common variables.
Write the common factors of the
coefficients and variables as a product
outside the parentheses.
~
%3
^1
To factor a polynomi4
@12 Factoring out the GCF
%3
^1
To factor a polynomial, find its
Greatest Common Factor (GCF).
The GCF is the lowest term that is a
factor of all numbers and variables in
a problem.
You must look at both the coefficients
and the variables.
^2
F
Multiply the First terms of each
binomial, then the Outer terms, then
the Inner terms, and finally the Last
terms.
Rewrite the expression as a sum.
^3
Find each product.
^4
Simplify and combine like terms.
~
tiplication expression
as a sum, multiplying each term of the
polynomial by the monomial outside the
parentheses.
^3
Simplify each product.
~
%4
^1
The FOIL (First, Outer, Inner, Last)
method helps you multiply two
binomials.
^2
Use the FOIL method. s usual.
^4
Simplify by multiplying coefficients
and adding the exponents of like
variables.
~
@32 Multiplying Polynomials
%3
^1
By using the Distributive Property, the
product of a monomial and a polynomial
can be written as a sum.
^2
Rewrite the mularentheses is
raised to a power, raise each part of
the monomial to the power indicated.
^2
Raise monomials to indicated powers.
^3
To raise variables with exponents to a
power, multiply the two exponents.
Simplify nonvariable terms with
exponents aying Monomials
%3
^1
Multiplication is commutative (the
order doesn't matter).
^2
Group coefficients and similar
variables together.
^3
Simplify by multiplying coefficients
and adding the exponents of like
variables.
~
%4
^1
When a monomial term in p3
@12 Adding and Subtracting Like Terms
%2
^1
Like terms have identical variables and
exponents.
^2
Add the coefficients of like terms.
~
%2
^1
Like terms have identical variables and
exponents.
^2
Subtract the coefficients of like
terms.
~
@22 Multiplfficients.
^3
Then factor out the lowest power of the
common variables.
Write the common factors of the
coefficients and variables as a product
outside the parentheses.
~
@22 Special Factorizations
%4
^1
If a polynomial represents the
difference of two squares both terms
will be perfect squares.
^2
First, find the square root of the
first term.
^3
Find the square root of the second term
(disregarding the negative sign).
^4
The first factor is the sum of the two
roots.
The second factor is the di !"#$e equal sign.
Add the inverse of the numerical term
to both sides of the equation.
^3
Simplify.
~
%3
^1
According to the Multiplication
Property of Equations, multiplying both
sides of an equation by the same
nonzero number results in an equivalent
3
@12 One Step Equations
%3
^1
According to the Addition Property of
Equations, adding the same value to
both sides of an equation results in an
equivalent equation.
^2
Use the Addition Property of Equations
to isolate the variable on one side of
th.
Use the common binomial in parentheses
as the second factor.
Use the two terms outside the
parentheses as the second binomial
factor in the answer.
~
hese two numbers as
coefficients, rewrite the single linear
term as two terms.
^6
Factor out the GCF of the first two
terms; then factor out the GCF of the
second two terms.
^7
The first factor in the final answer is
the GCF of the original expression).
^3
Factor the remaining trinomial.
Multiply the constant (the last term)
by the coefficient of the quadratic
term (the first term).
^4
Find the two factors of this product
whose sum is the coefficient of the
linear term (the middle term).
^5
Using tctor the remaining
polynomial as either the difference of
two squares or a trinomial square.
~
%7
^1
Factor each polynomial completely,
using one or more of the factoring
methods you have learned.
^2
Always begin by factoring out any GCF
(other than 1 as the second binomial
factor in the answer.
~
@42 Factoring Completely
%3
^1
Factor each polynomial completely,
using one or more of the factoring
methods you have learned.
^2
Always begin by factoring out any GCF
(other than 1).
^3
If possible, falinear
term as two terms.
^5
Factor out the GCF of the first two
terms; then factor out the GCF of the
second two terms.
^6
Use the common binomial in parentheses
as the first binomial factor in the
answer.
Use the two terms outside the
parenthesesstant (the last term)
by the coefficient of the quadratic
term (the first term).
^3
Find the two factors of this product
whose sum is the coefficient of the
linear term (the middle term).
^4
Using these two numbers as
coefficients, rewrite the single sum
is the coefficient of the middle term
(the linear term).
^4
Form two binomial factors, each
containing a variable factor and a
number factor.
~
%6
^1
If the coefficient of the quadratic
term is not 1, use the following
method.
^2
Multiply the contoring Trinomials
%4
^1
If the term in which the variable is
squared (the quadratic term) has a
coefficient of 1, use the following
method.
^2
First factor the quadratic term.
^3
Find two numbers whose product is the
last term (the constant) and whose ind the square root of the third term.
^4
Check to see if the middle term
(disregarding its sign) is twice the
product of the two square roots.
^5
The sign of each term has the same sign
as the middle term of the perfect
square trinomial.
~
@32 Facfference of
the two roots.
~
%5
^1
Learn to recognize a trinomial square.
The first and third terms will be
perfect squares.
The middle term will be twice the
product of the two square roots.
^2
First, find the square root of the
first term.
^3
Fequation.
^2
To remove the coefficient of a
variable, use the Multiplication
Property of Equations.
(Multiply both sides of the equation by
the reciprocal of the coefficient.)
^3
Simplify.
~
@22 Two Step Equations
%5
^1
In some equations, you will neeal
equations.
Find the value of the remaining
variable.
^5
Use the Addition Property to isolate
the variable term and simplify.
^6
Use the Multiplication Property to find
the value of the remaining variable and
simplify.
^7
Write the two values as a%'()*+,of the second. One
variable is cancelled out so that a
simple equation with only one variable
remains.
^3
Use the Multiplication Property to find
the value of the variable.
^4
Substitute the value of this variable
into the simpler of the two origin2
@12 Solving by Elimination
%7
^1
Two or more equations with the same
variables form a system of linear
equations. To solve such a system,
find the ordered pair that makes both
equations true.
^2
Add all the members of the first
equation to those y to find
the final answer.
^8
Simplify. Reduce any fraction, but
leave it in improper form.
~
variable terms on one side of the
equation.
(Add the opposite of the smaller
variable term to both sides.)
^4
Simplify by collecting like terms.
^5
Use the Addition Property again to
isolate the variable.
^6
Simplify.
^7
Use the Multiplication Propertn includes a polynomial
multiplied by a monomial, first use the
Distributive Property to simplify.
Then use the Addition Property and the
Multiplication Property as necessary.
^2
Use the Distributive Property.
^3
Use the Addition Property to get all
collecting like terms.
^4
Use the Addition Property to isolate
the variable term.
^5
Simplify.
^6
Use the Multiplication Property to find
the value of the variable.
^7
Simplify. Reduce any fraction, but
leave it in improper form.
~
%8
^1
If an equatioe Steps
%7
^1
If an equation includes a polynomial
multiplied by a monomial, first use the
Distributive Property to simplify.
Then use the Addition Property and the
Multiplication Property as necessary.
^2
Use the Distributive Property.
^3
Simplify byle term.
(Add the inverse of the constant to
both sides.)
^3
Simplify.
^4
If the variable's coefficient is 1 (or
just a negative sign), multiply both
sides of the equation by the reciprocal
of 1, which is 1.
^5
Simplify.
~
@32 Equations with Morply both sides by the reciprocal
of the coefficient of the variable.)
^5
Simplify.
~
%5
^1
In some equations, you will need to use
both the Addition Property and the
Multiplication Property.
^2
Start by using the Addition Property to
isolate the variabd to use
both the Addition Property and the
Multiplication Property.
^2
Start by using the Addition Property to
isolate the variable term.
(Add the inverse of the constant to
both sides.)
^3
Simplify.
^4
Then use the Multiplication Property.
(Multin ordered pair
(in alphabetical order).
~
%9
^1
Two or more equations with the same
variables form a system of linear
equations. To solve such a system,
find the ordered pair that makes both
equations true.
^2
In some equations, the coefficients of
one variable do not cancel out.
In this case, use the Multiplication
Property to multiply equation(s) by a
number(s) that will cause the
coefficients to cancel.
^3
Simplify.
^4
Add the members of the first equation
to those of the second, cancelling re dividing.
^2
First, factor the numerator, then the
denominator.
^3
Cancel any factor which appears in both
the numerator and the denominator and
simplify.
~
@22 Multiplying and Dividing
%3
^1
When an algebraic fraction contains
polynomials, factor /0123 variable factors. If
similar variables have exponents,
subtract the smaller exponent from the
larger. Put the result where the
larger exponent was and simplify.
~
%3
^1
The quotient of two polynomials is one
type of algebraic fraction. Factor
befo4
@12 Simplifying
%3
^1
Algebraic fractions can be reduced only
if a factor of the numerator also
occurs as a factor of the denominator.
^2
When reducing a fraction with two
monomials, first reduce the numerical
coefficient factors.
^3
Next, reduce thealues as an ordered
pair.
~
of the variable and simplify.
^8
Substitute the value of this variable
into the simpler of the original
equations to find the value of the
remaining variable.
^9
Simplify completely using the Addition
and/or Multiplication Property.
^10
Write the two v the single variable
term.
^3
Substitute the value of this variable
into the other equation.
^4
Distribute.
^5
Collect like terms.
^6
Use the Addition Property to isolate
the variable and simplify.
^7
Use the Multiplication Property to find
the value ing variable.
^7
Simplify.
^8
Write the two values as an ordered
pair.
~
%10
^1
The substitution method is another way
to solve a system of linear equations.
^2
Select the simplest equation and use
the Addition and/or Multiplication
Property to isolate
^3
Multiply.
^4
Collect like terms.
^5
Use the Multiplication Property and/or
Addition Property to find the value of
the variable.
^6
Substitute the value of this variable
into the simpler of the two original
equations to find the value of the
remain~
@22 Solving by Substitution
%8
^1
The substitution method is another way
to solve a system of linear equations.
^2
If a variable in one equation is
isolated on one side of the equal sign,
substitute the value of that variable
into the other equation.able and simplify.
^7
Use the Addition Property to isolate
the variable term and simplify.
^8
Use the Multiplication Property to find
the value of the remaining variable and
simplify.
^9
Write the two values as an ordered pair
(in alphabetical order).
out
one variable.
^5
A simple equation with only one
variable remains. Use the
Multiplication Property to find its
value.
^6
Substitute the value of this variable
into the simpler of the two original
equations. Find the value of the
remaining varibefore dividing
or multiplying.
^2
First factor the polynomials.
Write as a single fraction.
^3
Cancel any factor which appears in both
the numerator and denominator.
Simplify.
~
%4
^1
Dividing by an algebraic fraction is
the same as multiplying by the
reciprocal of that fraction.
^2
Rewrite the problem as multiplication.
^3
First factor the polynomials.
Write as a single fraction.
^4
Cancel any factor which appears in both
the numerator and the denominator.
Simplify.
~
@32 Adding and Subtracting1
When multiplying radical expressions,
multiply the coefficients and the
radicands separately.
^2
First, multiply the coefficients; then,
multiply the radicands.
^3
Factor the radicand using a perfect
square.
^4
Remove the perfect square factor by
weven exponent as one
factor.
^4
Then remove the perfect square
numerical factor by writing its square
root in front of the radical.
^5
Finally, take the square root of the
even powers. (Divide the exponents by
2.)
~
@22 Multiplying and Dividing
%5
^egative. The square root of 49 is
+7 or 7.
^2
To simplify a square root that involves
variables, first factor the numerical
coefficient using a perfect square.
^3
If the exponent is odd, separate the
power into two factors. Use the
largest possible 4678źl).
Use a perfect square (4, 9, 16,
25, ...) for one of the factors.
^3
Remove the perfect square factor by
writing its principal square root in
front of the radical sign.
~
%5
^1
Every positive real number has two
square roots, one positive and one
n3
@12 Simplifying
%3
^1
The square root of a number is one
of its two equal factors. The
principal square root is a positive
number. The principal square root
of 36 is 6.
^2
To simplify a square root, factor the
radicand (the number inside the
radicaearned.
~
he
Multiplication Property to eliminate
the denominators.
^2
First, find the LCD of the fractions.
^3
Multiply each term of the equation by
the LCD.
^4
Simplify and eliminate all
denominators.
^5
Solve the resulting equation using the
steps you have lenominators.
^2
First, find the LCD of the fractions.
^3
Multiply each term of the equation by
the LCD.
^4
Simplify and eliminate all
denominators.
^5
Solve the resulting equation.
~
%5
^1
A fractional equation can be solved
most easily by first using to create the LCD.
^5
Simplify.
^6
Combine the numerators, now that they
have common denominators.
^7
Reduce the result if possible, and
simplify.
~
@42 Solving Fractional Equations
%5
^1
One method of solving a fractional
equation is to eliminate the
dctor each binomial denominator.
^3
Determine the lowest common denominator
(LCD). Write the LCD as a product
containing each different factor found
in the denominators.
^4
Multiply the numerator and denominator
of each fraction by the factor needed
t
%3
^1
Fractions must have common denominators
in order to be added or subtracted.
^2
Add or subtract the numerators.
^3
Reduce the result whenever possible.
~
%7
^1
Fractions must have common denominators
in order to be added or subtracted.
^2
First, fariting its square root in front of the
radical.
^5
Simplify.
~
%3
^1
A radical expression in simplest form
cannot have a radical in the denominator.
^2
To "rationalize the denominator,"
multiply both terms of the fraction by
the radical in the denominator.
^3
Simplify, noting that any radical times
itself (squared) equals the radicand.
~
@32 Adding and Subtracting
%2
^1
Radical expressions may be added and
subtracted only if their radicands are
alike.
^2
Combine the coefficients of like
radicands>@A˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙" ˙˙ ˙"
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙olution set.
~
s in the formula.
^5
Multiply.
^6
Simplify the radicand.
^7
Take square roots of perfect squares.
^8
Rewrite as two separate expressions,
one with a plus sign and one with a
minus sign.
^9
Simplify each numerator.
^10
Reduce if possible and write as a
sossible.
~
%10
^1
Quadratic equations which cannot be
factored can be solved by using the
Quadratic Formula.
^2
Rewrite the equation in standard form.
^3
Determine the value of the coefficients
"a" and "b" and the constant "c."
^4
Substitute these value be solved by using the
Quadratic Formula.
^2
Determine the value of the coefficients
"a" and "b" and the constant "c."
^3
Substitute these values in the formula.
^4
Multiply.
^5
Simplify the radicand.
^6
Rewrite in simplest radical form.
^7
Reduce if pents.
^2
Rewrite the equation in standard form.
^3
Factor the polynomial.
^4
Set each factor equal to 0.
^5
Solve the resulting equations.
^6
Write as a solution set.
~
@22 Using the Quadratic Formula
%7
^1
Quadratic equations which cannot be
factored can9;<=nomial.
^3
Set each factor equal to 0.
^4
Solve the resulting equations.
^5
Write as a solution set.
~
%6
^1
A quadratic equation is written in
standard form if the polynomial is
equal to 0 and all terms are in
descending order according to their
expon2
@12 Solving by Factoring
%5
^1
A quadratic equation is written in
standard form if the polynomial is
equal to 0 and all terms are in
descending order according to their
exponents.
^2
Verify that the equation is in standard
form; then factor the poly as one term.
~
%3
^1
Radical expressions may be added and
subtracted only if their radicands are
alike.
^2
Simplify all radical expressions by
taking the square root of perfect
square factors.
^3
Combine the coefficients of like
radicands as one te˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙" ˙˙" ˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙" ˙FH ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙" ˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙" ˙˙" ˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙# ˙# ˙˙! ˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙# ˙˙ BDE ˙ ˙ ˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
! ˙$ ˙ ˙$ ˙# ˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙ ˙˙%
˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
& ˙ ˙˙% ˙MOP ˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
%
˙ ˙˙%
˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
&
% ˙ ˙˙# ˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙ ˙˙!
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙ ˙˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙ ˙˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙ ˙˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙ ˙˙$ ˙˙IKL˙˙˙
"
˙ ˙˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙$ ˙˙$ ˙˙˙˙
!
˙ ˙˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙ ˙˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙ ˙˙#
˙( ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙ ˙˙$
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
&
˙ ˙˙&
˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙#
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
! ˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
'
UW
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
% ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙
$ ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙"
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
'
˙'
˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
,
˙ ˙˙&
˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙

˙ ˙˙)
˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
/
˙ ˙˙&
˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙ ˙˙% ˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
0
˙ ˙ ˙& QST ˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙ ˙˙% ˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
#
" ˙ ˙˙" ˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
% ˙ ˙˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙&
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
% ˙$ ˙˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙% ˙˙) ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙%
˙˙$
˙'
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙
˙(
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙( ˙˙" ˙' ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙% ˙˙" ˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙% \^_˙˙˙˙˙
˙%
˙˙$
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙( ˙˙*
˙% ˙˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙'
˙˙!
˙˙˙˙˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙+
˙+
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
' ˙% ˙˙0 ˙)
˙'
˙˙/
˙*
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙'
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙# ˙˙/ ˙* ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
& XZ[˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙$
˙˙)
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙#
˙˙(
# ˙& ˙˙* ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙( ˙˙) ˙' ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙$
˙˙)
˙(
˙%˙˙% ˙% ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
% ˙! ˙˙* ˙˙˙˙
#
˙&
˙˙(
˙(
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙# dfgh ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙&
˙˙'
˙'
˙˙˙˙˙
˙' ˙˙& ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
! ˙$ ˙˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
>
˙1
˙˙8
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙) ˙˙. ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙(
˙˙+
˙˙&
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
, ˙( ˙˙. ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
, `bc ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙&
˙˙(
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙'
˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙&
˙˙'
˙(
˙&
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙npqr ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
! ˙$ ˙˙( ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙$
˙˙'
%
˙%
˙˙)
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
% ˙% ˙˙) ˙& ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙' ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙& ˙˙% ˙! ˙# ˙) ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙% ˙˙$ ˙" ˙) ˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙& ˙˙% ˙˙
! ˙$ ˙˙) ˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙$ ˙˙% iklm ˙' ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙!
˙˙'
˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙" ˙˙) ˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙$ ˙˙)
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
% ˙" ˙˙& ˙$ ˙# ˙'
˙ ˙˙& ˙! ˙5
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙
˙˙:
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙!
˙˙5
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙!˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙! ˙˙4
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$
˙" ˙˙8 suv˙˙˙˙
˙
˙˙%
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙!
˙˙&
˙˙˙
˙! ˙˙' ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙! ˙˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙$ ˙& ˙" ˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙& ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙" ˙˙' ˙% ˙) ˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙# ˙˙' ˙$ ˙& ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙" ˙ ˙( ˙% ˙ ˙˙( ˙! ˙5
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
%
˙! ˙˙+ wyz{ ˙!
˙5
˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙" ˙˙% ˙"
˙4
˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙)
˙˙'
˙#
˙'
˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙(
˙˙'
˙%
˙(
˙" ~ ˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙ ˙# ˙# ˙' ˙! ˙4
" ˙ ˙˙& ˙" ˙% ˙! ˙5
˙˙& ˙! ˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙!
˙˙&
˙"
˙%
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙! ˙' ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙
˙˙&
˙!
˙(
˙ ˙'
˙:
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙" ˙˙' ˙!
˙&
˙;
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
&
˙"
˙˙,
˙$ ˙' ˙" ˙4
˙˙˙˙˙
!
˙(
˙˙#
˙"
˙%
˙'
˙!
˙8
˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙ ˙! ˙" ˙! ˙"6 ˙˙˙˙
˙! ˙! ˙˙˙˙
Ż
˙# ˙˙ż
˙ˇ
˙" ˙˙˝
˙˝
˙" ˙! ˙"
˙! ˙! ˙# ˙! ˙! ˙˙˙˙
° ˙"
˙#
˙˙˙˙˙˙
°
˙" ˙˙˝
˙˝ ˙(
˙˙˙˙˙˙
°
˙#
˙˙ ˙! ˙#
˙˙˙˙˙˙
ł
˙(
˙˙ ˙ ˙" ˙"
˙˙˙˙˙˙
°6
˙!6 ˙6˙ ˙" ˙% ˙! ˙!
Ż6
˙)6
˙ ˙!6 ˙!6 ˙"6 ˙ 6 ˙(
˙"
˙5
˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙
#
˙+
˙˙#
˙%
˙$
˙( ˙! ˙˙& ˙% ˙# ˙' ˙# ˙3 ˙# ˙˙˝
˙š
˙! ˙! ˙" ˙! ˙" ˙˙˙˙ ˙"6 ˙"6 ˙!6 ˙#6 ˙"6 ˙˙˙ ˙!6 ˙˙˙
ł6
˙#6 ˙˙%6 ˙$6 ˙&6 ˙˙$6 ˙$6 ˙'6 ˙"6 ˙!6 ˙!6 ˙"6 ˙#6 ˙!6 ˙!6 ˙"6 ˙"6 ˙˙˙
´6
˙#6 ˙#6 ˙!6 ˙˙˙
°6
˙$6 ˙˙$6 ˙$6 ˙&6
˙#6 ˙˙%6 ˙#6 ˙$6 ˙"6 ˙!6 ˙!6 ˙$6 ˙&6 ˙$6 ˙"6 ˙#6 ˙"6 ˙˙˙˙˙
ą6 ˙ 6 ˙!6 ˙#6 ˙!6 ˙˙˙˙˙
ť6
˙$6 ˙ ˙"6 ˙"6 ˙˙˙˙˙
ś6
˙"6 ˙˙"6 ˙#6 ˙"6 ˙˙˙˙˙
´6
˙$6 ˙˙"6 ˙"6 ˙ 6 ˙!6
ź6
˙"6 ˙˙#6 ˙"6 ˙!6 ˙"6 ˙#6
,6
˙)6
˙˙/6
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
16
˙+6
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
F
˙7
˙˙J
˙A ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
A
˙,
˙˙D
˙6
˙˙:
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
4
˙/
˙˙0
˙! ˙˙=
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
H
˙A
B
˙
˙˙<
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
L
˙1
˙˙=6
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
*6
˙6
˙˙>6
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
46
˙˙=6
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
26
˙,6
˙˙A6
66
˙(6
˙˙96
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
26
˙06 ˙46
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
/6
˙6
˙˙26
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
C
˙ ˙˙I
˙@
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
?
˙
˙˙D
1
˙! ˙˙ ˙H
˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
0
˙6
˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙
4
˙
˙˙9
˙$ ˙F
˙˙<
˙% ˙?
˙5
˙
˙=6
˙56
˙˙˙˙˙˙
2
˙,
˙˙˙˙˙˙
96
˙+6
˙˙:6
˙'6 ˙B6
˙˙76
˙$6 ˙B6
˙>6
˙6
˙1
˙˙0
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
36
˙6
˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
*
˙(
˙˙&
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
8
16
˙*
˙˙)6
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
<
˙ ˙8
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙(
˙˙ ˙I
˙' ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
0 Ą˘Ł ˙* ˙) ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙'
˙˙'
˙˙( ˙) ˙( ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
! ˙' ˙˙) ˙' ˙˙' ˙+ ˙) ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙& ¤Ś§ ˙ ˙˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
"
˙ ˙˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙! ˙˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙7
˙%
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙˙ ˙D
˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
+
˙!
˙˙ ˙! ˙˙ ˙6
˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
/
˙!
˙! ˙ ˙ ˙F
˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
,
˙! ˙˙ ˙E
˙' ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
/
˙! ˙˙ ˙H
˙& ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
2 ˙+
˙)
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
6 ˙ 6 ˙˙!6 ˙!6 ˙ 6 ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
6 ˙!6 ˙˙
# ˙$ ˙˙& ˙' ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙# ˙˙* ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙" ˙˙) ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙" ˙˙) ŹŽ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙! ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙# ˙˙) ˙˙
! ˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙
˙˙26
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
%6
˙'6
˙˙26
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
%6
˙*6
˙'6
˙ ˙16
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
%6
˙'6
˙˙26 ˙"6 ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
6 ˙ 6 ˙˙"6 ˙#6 ˙!6 ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
%6 ¨ŞŤ#6 ˙!6 ˙!6 ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
6 ˙!6 ˙˙"6 ˙"6 ˙˙% ˙( ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙% ˙˙& Żą˛ł˙$6 ˙˙&6
˙=6
˙46
˙(6
˙+ ˙<
˙7
˙*
˙)
˙˙˙˙˙˙
#6
˙,6
˙/6
˙˙˙˙˙˙
$6 ˙#6 ˙˙&6
´śˇ¸šşť
˙6
˙˙˙˙˙˙
#6 ˙#6 ˙˙(6
˙A6
˙46
#6 ˙!6 ˙˙'6
˙=6
˙56
˙*6 ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙$ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
! ˙& ˙˙( ˙' ˙( ˙# ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
# ˙% ˙˙* ˙' ˙) ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$ ˙% ˙˙* ˙& ˙( ˙,
˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
" ˙& ˙˙+ ˙# ˙( ˙( ˙% ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙
$ ˙,
˙˙$ ˙)
˙˙˙˙˙˙
#6 ˙+6
˙˙+6 ˙&6
˙>6
˙5
˙+
˙'
˙4
˙0
˙˙˙
" rm.
~
˙/
˙˙˙ ˙&
˙<
˙4
˙+
˙(
˙6 ˙&
˙8
˙/
˙˙˙
" ˙$ ˙˙)
˙˙) ˙&
˙=
˙4
˙+
˙*
˙'
˙6
˙
˙˙˙
" ˙, ˙,
˙˙* ˙'
˙>
˙7